employment legal advice

Are you feeling overwhelmed by the complexities of employment law? Seeking reliable legal advice is crucial for both employers and employees in today’s rapidly changing work landscape. In this informative blog article, we will delve into the key aspects of employment law, offering expert insights and guidance to help you navigate the legal intricacies with confidence. Whether you’re dealing with issues related to hiring, contracts, discrimination, or termination, our goal is to provide you with a comprehensive understanding of employment law and equip you with the knowledge needed to make informed decisions. Let’s dive in!

1. Understanding Employment Law Basics

Employment law serves as the foundation for ensuring fair and equitable treatment of both employers and employees. It encompasses a wide range of legal regulations and statutes that govern various aspects of the employer-employee relationship. By understanding the basics of employment law, you can navigate the complexities with confidence.

The Employer-Employee Relationship

At the core of employment law is the relationship between employers and employees. This relationship is governed by legal obligations and rights that both parties must adhere to. Employers must provide a safe and non-discriminatory work environment, while employees must perform their job duties diligently and follow company policies.

Key Employment Laws and Regulations

Employment law is comprised of numerous laws and regulations that protect the rights of employees and ensure fair treatment. Some of the key laws include:

  • The Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA): This federal law establishes minimum wage, overtime pay requirements, and child labor standards.
  • Title VII of the Civil Rights Act: Prohibits workplace discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin.
  • The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA): Protects individuals with disabilities from discrimination in employment, public accommodations, and other areas.
  • The Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA): Allows employees to take unpaid leave for family or medical reasons while protecting their job security.
  • The Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA): Prohibits age discrimination against individuals who are 40 years of age or older.

Employment Contracts

An employment contract is a legally binding agreement between an employer and an employee that outlines the terms and conditions of their employment. It typically includes details such as job responsibilities, compensation, benefits, work hours, and termination clauses. While not all employment relationships require a written contract, having one can provide clarity and protection for both parties involved.

Employment Classifications

Understanding the different employment classifications is crucial to ensure compliance with employment laws. The three primary classifications are:

  • Full-time Employees: Typically work a set number of hours per week and receive benefits such as health insurance and paid time off.
  • Part-time Employees: Work fewer hours than full-time employees and may have different benefit eligibility.
  • Independent Contractors: Generally work on a project-by-project basis and are not considered employees. They are responsible for their own taxes and benefits.

By familiarizing yourself with the basics of employment law, you can protect your rights as an employee or adhere to legal obligations as an employer. In the following sections, we will delve deeper into specific areas of employment law, providing you with the knowledge and tools necessary to navigate various employment-related issues.

2. Navigating Hiring and Recruitment Processes

Employers play a critical role in ensuring fair and unbiased hiring practices while selecting the most qualified candidates for their organizations. Navigating the hiring and recruitment processes effectively requires a strong understanding of legal guidelines and best practices.

Creating Job Descriptions

A well-crafted job description serves as the foundation for attracting suitable candidates. It should accurately outline the job’s responsibilities, qualifications, and expectations. However, it is crucial to avoid any discriminatory language or requirements that may exclude certain individuals based on protected characteristics.

Fair Interviewing Practices

When conducting interviews, employers must strive for fairness and objectivity. It is essential to ask questions that are directly related to the job requirements and avoid any inquiries that may infringe upon an applicant’s protected rights, such as those related to race, religion, gender, age, or disabilities.

Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO) Compliance

Compliance with Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO) laws is vital to ensure fair treatment of all applicants. These laws prohibit discrimination based on protected characteristics such as race, color, religion, sex, national origin, disability, or age. Employers must take active steps to prevent any discriminatory practices during the hiring process.

Avoiding Implicit Bias

Implicit biases can unknowingly influence decision-making during the hiring process. To promote fairness, employers should implement strategies to mitigate the effects of such biases, such as blind resume reviews or diverse hiring panels. Additionally, training and educating hiring managers about implicit bias can help foster more inclusive practices.

Background Checks and Reference Checks

Conducting background checks and reference checks can provide valuable insights into an applicant’s qualifications and character. However, employers must ensure compliance with applicable laws, such as the Fair Credit Reporting Act (FCRA), which regulates the use of consumer reports for employment purposes.

Reasonable Accommodations for Applicants

Employers have a legal obligation to provide reasonable accommodations for applicants with disabilities during the hiring process. This may include making adjustments to the application process or interview format to ensure equal opportunities for all candidates.

Affirmative Action Programs

In certain cases, employers may be required to implement affirmative action programs to address historical imbalances and promote diversity within their workforce. These programs aim to provide equal opportunities for individuals from underrepresented groups.

By navigating the hiring and recruitment processes in a fair and unbiased manner, employers can attract top talent while adhering to legal obligations. In the next section, we will explore the importance of employment contracts and the key components they should include.

3. The Importance of Employment Contracts

Employment contracts serve as essential documents that establish clear expectations and protect the rights of both employers and employees. Understanding the importance of employment contracts can help ensure a harmonious working relationship.

Clarity in Job Responsibilities

An employment contract should clearly outline the job responsibilities and expectations for the employee. This includes specific tasks, goals, and performance metrics that the employee is responsible for fulfilling. Clear communication of job responsibilities helps establish a solid foundation for a productive working relationship.

Terms of Employment

Employment contracts specify the terms of employment, including the duration of the employment relationship. Contracts can be either fixed-term or indefinite, depending on the nature of the employment. Indicating the duration of the employment provides clarity for both parties and helps manage expectations.

Compensation and Benefits

Employment contracts outline the compensation and benefits that the employee will receive. This includes the agreed-upon salary or wage, payment frequency, and any additional benefits such as health insurance, retirement plans, or vacation allowances. Clearly defining the compensation and benefits helps prevent misunderstandings and ensures fair treatment.

Termination Clauses

One crucial aspect of employment contracts is the inclusion of termination clauses. These clauses outline the conditions under which either party can terminate the employment relationship. They may specify notice periods, severance packages, or grounds for termination. Including termination clauses helps protect the rights of both employers and employees and establishes clear procedures for ending the employment.

Protection of Intellectual Property

In certain industries, protecting intellectual property is essential. Employment contracts often include provisions that safeguard the employer’s intellectual property rights. This can include clauses related to confidentiality, non-disclosure, and ownership of inventions or creative works produced by the employee during their employment.

Non-Competition and Non-Solicitation Agreements

In some cases, employers may include non-competition or non-solicitation agreements in employment contracts. These agreements restrict employees from working for competitors or soliciting clients or employees from the current employer for a specified period after leaving the company. Non-competition and non-solicitation agreements help protect the employer’s business interests.

Dispute Resolution Procedures

Employment contracts may include provisions for resolving disputes that may arise during the employment relationship. This can include procedures for mediation, arbitration, or the jurisdiction that will govern any legal proceedings. Including dispute resolution procedures promotes clarity and can help avoid costly litigation.

Employment contracts provide a framework for a clear and mutually beneficial employer-employee relationship. By understanding the importance of employment contracts and ensuring their proper implementation, employers and employees can establish a solid foundation for a successful working partnership. In the following sections, we will explore wage and hour laws, workplace discrimination and harassment prevention, and other crucial aspects of employment law.

4. Understanding Wage and Hour Laws

Complying with wage and hour laws is a vital responsibility for employers to ensure fair compensation and working conditions for their employees. Understanding the intricacies of these laws can help employers avoid legal disputes and maintain a harmonious work environment.

Minimum Wage Requirements

Minimum wage laws establish the lowest hourly wage rate that employers must pay their employees. These rates can vary by jurisdiction and may differ based on factors such as the employee’s age, occupation, or the size of the employer’s business. It is crucial for employers to stay updated on applicable minimum wage requirements to ensure compliance.

Overtime Pay

Overtime laws stipulate that eligible employees must receive additional compensation for any hours worked beyond the standard workweek. In most cases, the overtime rate is one-and-a-half times the employee’s regular hourly wage. Employers must accurately track employee work hours and pay overtime accordingly to avoid violations of overtime pay requirements.

Exemptions from Overtime

Some employees may be exempt from overtime pay under specific circumstances. Exemptions are typically based on factors such as job duties, salary level, and professional status. It is crucial for employers to understand the criteria for overtime exemptions and correctly classify employees to avoid potential legal issues.

Meal and Rest Breaks

Wage and hour laws may require employers to provide meal and rest breaks to their employees. The duration and frequency of these breaks can vary by jurisdiction. Employers must ensure they adhere to applicable laws regarding meal and rest breaks, as well as any compensation requirements associated with missed or interrupted breaks.

Recordkeeping Requirements

Employers are generally required to maintain accurate records of employee work hours, wages, and other relevant information. These records are crucial for demonstrating compliance with wage and hour laws and may be subject to inspection by regulatory authorities. Employers should familiarize themselves with the specific recordkeeping requirements applicable to their jurisdiction.

Child Labor Restrictions

Child labor laws aim to protect the rights and well-being of underage workers. These laws establish restrictions on the types of jobs, hours of work, and conditions in which minors can be employed. Employers must understand and comply with child labor laws to ensure the proper treatment of young workers.

Enforcement and Penalties

Failure to comply with wage and hour laws can result in severe penalties for employers, including fines, back wages owed to employees, and potential legal actions. It is essential for employers to prioritize compliance and take proactive measures to understand and meet their obligations under wage and hour laws.

By familiarizing themselves with wage and hour laws, employers can ensure fair and lawful compensation practices, promoting a positive work environment and minimizing the risk of legal disputes. In the next section, we will delve into workplace discrimination and harassment prevention, emphasizing the importance of creating an inclusive and respectful workplace for all employees.

5. Workplace Discrimination and Harassment Prevention

Promoting a safe and inclusive work environment is not only ethically essential but also legally mandated. Employers must actively work to prevent workplace discrimination and harassment, fostering an atmosphere of respect and fairness for all employees.

Understanding Workplace Discrimination

Workplace discrimination occurs when an employee is treated unfavorably based on protected characteristics such as race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age, disability, or genetic information. Employers must understand the various forms of discrimination and ensure they do not engage in discriminatory practices.

Preventing Discrimination in Hiring and Promotion

Employers must ensure that their hiring and promotion practices are free from discriminatory biases. This includes treating all applicants and employees fairly and evaluating them based on their qualifications and job-related criteria rather than personal characteristics.

Creating Anti-Discrimination Policies

Employers should establish clear anti-discrimination policies that explicitly state their commitment to providing equal opportunities for all employees. These policies should outline the prohibited forms of discrimination, reporting procedures, and the consequences for engaging in discriminatory behavior.

Training on Diversity and Inclusion

Providing training on diversity and inclusion can help raise awareness among employees and foster a more inclusive work environment. These training programs should focus on promoting empathy, understanding unconscious bias, and creating a culture of respect.

Preventing Workplace Harassment

Workplace harassment involves unwelcome conduct based on protected characteristics, such as sexual harassment, racial harassment, or harassment based on religion. Employers must take proactive measures to prevent harassment, establish reporting mechanisms, and promptly address any reported incidents.

Developing Anti-Harassment Policies

Employers should have robust anti-harassment policies in place that clearly define what constitutes harassment and the steps employees should take to report incidents. These policies should emphasize that retaliation against those who report harassment is strictly prohibited.

Investigating and Addressing Complaints

Employers have a responsibility to promptly and thoroughly investigate any complaints of discrimination or harassment. This includes taking appropriate remedial actions, such as disciplinary measures, to address substantiated claims and prevent future occurrences.

Encouraging a Culture of Respect

Creating a culture of respect is vital in preventing workplace discrimination and harassment. Employers should encourage open communication, provide avenues for employees to voice concerns, and foster an environment where all employees feel valued and treated with dignity.

By prioritizing workplace discrimination and harassment prevention, employers can cultivate a positive work environment that respects the rights and dignity of every employee. In the next section, we will explore employee benefits and leave policies, highlighting the legal requirements and considerations employers should be aware of.

6. Navigating Employee Benefits and Leave Policies

Employee benefits and leave policies play a significant role in attracting and retaining top talent while complying with legal requirements. Understanding the intricacies of these policies can help employers provide competitive benefits packages and effectively manage employee absences.

Health Insurance Benefits

Health insurance is a vital employee benefit that provides coverage for medical expenses. Employers may offer various health insurance plans, including options for individual or family coverage. It is important for employers to comply with applicable laws, such as the Affordable Care Act (ACA), which may require certain employers to provide health insurance to eligible employees.

Retirement Plans

Employers may offer retirement plans, such as 401(k) or pension plans, to help employees save for their future. These plans typically involve employer contributions and tax advantages for employees. Employers should ensure compliance with the Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA) and maintain transparency in communicating retirement plan details to their employees.

Paid Time Off (PTO)

Paid time off policies allow employees to take time off from work while receiving their regular pay. This may include vacation days, personal days, or a combined PTO bank. Employers should establish clear guidelines regarding accrual, usage, and scheduling of PTO, ensuring compliance with any applicable state or local laws.

Sick Leave

Sick leave policies provide employees with paid time off to address their own illness or that of a family member. Many jurisdictions have specific sick leave laws that employers must adhere to, including provisions for accrual rates, permissible uses, and employee eligibility.

Family and Medical Leave

The Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) provides eligible employees with unpaid, job-protected leave for specific family and medical reasons. Employers must understand the FMLA requirements, including employee eligibility, qualifying reasons for leave, and the duration of leave allowed. Some employers may also choose to offer paid family and medical leave benefits beyond what is required by law.

Maternity and Paternity Leave

Maternity and paternity leave policies allow parents to take time off to care for a newborn or newly adopted child. Employers should consider offering paid parental leave benefits and establish policies that outline the duration and eligibility criteria for such leave.

Flexible Work Arrangements

Flexible work arrangements, such as telecommuting or flexible scheduling, can improve work-life balance for employees. Employers should establish guidelines and procedures for implementing flexible work arrangements, ensuring compliance with applicable laws and addressing any potential impact on productivity or operational needs.

Benefit Communication and Documentation

Employers should effectively communicate benefit offerings to employees, providing clear and comprehensive documentation that outlines the details of each benefit and how employees can access and utilize them. Regular updates and open communication channels can help employees fully understand and take advantage of the benefits available to them.

By navigating employee benefits and leave policies effectively, employers can attract and retain a talented workforce while ensuring compliance with legal requirements. In the next section, we will explore best practices for managing employee performance and conduct, fostering a culture of accountability and productivity.

7. Managing Employee Performance and Conduct

Effectively managing employee performance and addressing misconduct is essential for maintaining a productive and harmonious workplace. By implementing best practices, employers can promote accountability, improve performance, and address any behavioral issues that may arise.

Establishing Clear Performance Expectations

Setting clear performance expectations is a crucial first step in managing employee performance. Employers should communicate job responsibilities, performance standards, and goals to employees, ensuring they have a clear understanding of what is expected of them.

Regular Performance Feedback and Evaluations

Providing regular feedback and conducting performance evaluations can help employees understand how they are performing and identify areas for improvement. Employers should establish a consistent process for delivering feedback and conducting evaluations to ensure fairness and objectivity.

Performance Improvement Plans (PIPs)

If an employee’s performance falls below expectations, a Performance Improvement Plan (PIP) may be implemented. A PIP outlines specific areas for improvement, sets goals, and establishes a timeline for improvement. Employers should communicate PIPs clearly and provide necessary support to help employees meet the outlined expectations.

Addressing Behavioral Issues

Employers must promptly address behavioral issues that may arise in the workplace. This includes addressing conflicts, inappropriate conduct, or violations of company policies. Employers should ensure that disciplinary actions are fair, consistent, and documented appropriately.

Effective Communication and Collaboration

Open communication and collaboration between employers and employees are essential for managing performance. Regular check-ins, team meetings, and opportunities for feedback can help identify challenges and address them proactively.

Training and Development Opportunities

Investing in employee training and development can enhance performance and improve job satisfaction. Employers should provide opportunities for employees to enhance their skills, stay updated on industry trends, and grow professionally.

Recognition and Rewards

Recognizing and rewarding employees for their achievements can boost morale and motivation. Employers should establish recognition programs, such as employee of the month awards or performance-based bonuses, to acknowledge and appreciate outstanding contributions.

Documentation and Recordkeeping

It is crucial for employers to maintain accurate documentation and records related to employee performance and conduct. This includes performance evaluations, disciplinary actions, and any other relevant information. Documentation serves as a reference point for future evaluations and can provide support in case of disputes or legal issues.

By implementing effective performance management strategies, employers can ensure that employees meet organizational goals, address any performance gaps, and maintain a positive work environment. In the next section, we will explore termination and severance considerations, providing guidance on navigating this sensitive aspect of the employer-employee relationship.

8. Termination and Severance Considerations

Terminating an employee is a sensitive and legally significant decision that employers must handle with care. Understanding the proper procedures and considerations surrounding termination and severance can help employers navigate this challenging aspect of the employer-employee relationship.

Notice Requirements

Employers must provide appropriate notice to employees when terminating their employment. Notice requirements can vary based on factors such as the length of employment, employment agreements, or applicable laws. Employers should familiarize themselves with the notice requirements specific to their jurisdiction.

Severance Packages

Severance packages are often offered to employees upon termination. These packages typically include financial compensation and other benefits provided by the employer in exchange for the employee’s agreement to certain terms, such as waiving their right to sue the employer. Employers should consider offering fair and reasonable severance packages based on industry standards and individual circumstances.

Termination Meetings

When terminating an employee, employers should conduct termination meetings in a respectful and professional manner. These meetings should clearly communicate the reasons for termination, provide any necessary documentation or information, and allow the employee an opportunity to ask questions or express concerns.

Legal Grounds for Termination

Employers must have valid legal grounds for terminating an employee to avoid potential legal consequences. Valid grounds may include poor performance, misconduct, violation of company policies, or economic reasons. Employers should document instances of poor performance or misconduct to ensure they have a clear record of the reasons behind termination.

Considerations for At-Will Employment

In at-will employment relationships, employers have the right to terminate employees without cause, as long as it does not violate any anti-discrimination laws or employment agreements. However, employers should still handle terminations with fairness and consistency to avoid potential legal disputes or damage to their reputation.

Employee Exit Processes

Employers should establish clear exit processes to ensure a smooth transition for both the departing employee and the organization. This may include returning company property, revoking access to company systems, and transitioning work responsibilities. Adequate documentation and communication during the exit process can help protect the employer’s interests.

Unemployment Benefits

Terminated employees may be eligible for unemployment benefits, which provide temporary financial assistance while they search for new employment. Employers should inform employees about their eligibility for unemployment benefits and provide any necessary documentation to support their claims.

Post-Termination Obligations

Employers may have post-termination obligations, such as fulfilling contractual obligations, providing references, or complying with non-compete agreements. Employers should ensure they fulfill these obligations while also protecting their own interests.

By understanding termination and severance considerations, employers can navigate this challenging process with fairness, transparency, and compliance with applicable laws. In the next section, we will explore the various methods of resolving employment disputes, providing guidance on finding amicable solutions to conflicts.

9. Resolving Employment Disputes

Despite best efforts, employment disputes may arise in the workplace. It is crucial for employers and employees to understand the various methods available for resolving these disputes and finding amicable solutions. By exploring different avenues of dispute resolution, parties can work towards resolving conflicts and maintaining a positive work environment.


Mediation involves a neutral third party facilitating a discussion between the parties involved in the dispute. The mediator helps identify common interests, promotes effective communication, and guides the parties towards reaching a mutually acceptable resolution. Mediation allows for open dialogue and provides the opportunity for creative problem-solving.


Arbitration is a more formal process in which a neutral third party, known as an arbitrator, reviews the evidence and arguments presented by both parties and makes a binding decision. Arbitration can be less time-consuming and more cost-effective than litigation, providing a quicker resolution to employment disputes.


If other methods of dispute resolution fail, parties may resort to litigation, which involves filing a lawsuit in court. Litigation can be a lengthy and costly process, but it provides a formal setting for presenting evidence and arguments to a judge or jury. Employers and employees should seek legal counsel when considering litigation.

Employer-Employee Negotiations

In some cases, disputes can be resolved through direct negotiations between the employer and employee. This can involve discussions, facilitated meetings, or the involvement of supervisors or human resources professionals. Negotiations allow the parties to reach a resolution tailored to their specific needs and interests.

Alternative Dispute Resolution Programs

Some employers may have alternative dispute resolution programs in place, such as internal grievance procedures or peer review systems. These programs provide structured processes for employees to voice their concerns and seek resolution within the organization.

Legal Assistance and Counsel

When faced with employment disputes, employers and employees may seek legal assistance to understand their rights and options. Consulting with an employment attorney can provide valuable guidance and representation throughout the dispute resolution process.

Confidentiality and Non-Disclosure Agreements

In certain cases, parties may enter into confidentiality or non-disclosure agreements as part of the dispute resolution process. These agreements aim to protect sensitive information shared during negotiations and maintain the privacy of the parties involved.

Compliance with Settlement Agreements

If a resolution is reached through any method of dispute resolution, parties should comply with the terms of the settlement agreement. This includes fulfilling any obligations, adhering to confidentiality provisions, and preventing future disputes related to the resolved matter.

By exploring various methods of resolving employment disputes, employers and employees can find the most suitable approach for their specific situations. In the final section, we will provide valuable resources and tips for staying updated on the latest developments in employment law.

10. Staying Updated on Employment Law Changes

Employment laws are subject to change and evolve over time, necessitating a proactive approach to staying informed about the latest developments. By keeping up-to-date with employment law changes, both employers and employees can ensure compliance with legal requirements and protect their rights and interests.

Regular Review of Legislation

To stay informed about employment law changes, it is essential to regularly review relevant legislation at the local, state, and federal levels. This includes monitoring updates to labor codes, regulations, and any new statutes that may impact the employment relationship.

Industry-Specific Regulations

Depending on the industry, there may be specific regulations and guidelines that employers and employees need to be aware of. These industry-specific laws may address areas such as healthcare, transportation, finance, or technology. Staying informed about industry-specific regulations ensures compliance and mitigates potential risks.

Employment Law News and Updates

Subscribing to reputable employment law publications, newsletters, or online resources can provide valuable news and updates on legal developments. These resources often provide analysis, interpretations, and practical insights regarding employment law changes.

Professional Associations and Organizations

Joining professional associations and organizations related to human resources, labor law, or specific industries can offer access to valuable resources and networking opportunities. These associations often provide educational events, webinars, and publications that keep members informed about employment law changes.

Legal Counsel and Consultation

Seeking legal counsel or consultation from employment attorneys can provide expert guidance on employment law matters. Attorneys specializing in employment law can help interpret legal changes, assess their impact on specific situations, and provide advice on compliance and risk management.

Training and Development Programs

Participating in training and development programs focused on employment law can enhance knowledge and understanding of legal requirements. These programs often cover topics such as discrimination, harassment prevention, employee rights, and compliance strategies.

Internal Policies and Procedures

Employers should regularly review and update their internal policies and procedures to align with current employment laws. This includes ensuring that employee handbooks, codes of conduct, and other relevant documents reflect any legal changes and provide clear guidelines for employees to follow.

Engaging with Legal Professionals

Engaging in discussions and seeking guidance from legal professionals through forums, webinars, or conferences can provide valuable insights into employment law changes. These interactions allow employers and employees to ask questions, discuss concerns, and gain a deeper understanding of legal developments.

By taking a proactive approach to staying updated on employment law changes, employers and employees can navigate the ever-evolving legal landscape with confidence and ensure compliance with their rights and obligations. With this, we conclude our comprehensive exploration of employment law. Remember to consult legal professionals for specific advice related to your unique circumstances.

In conclusion, understanding employment law is crucial for both employers and employees to navigate the complexities of the employer-employee relationship. From hiring practices to termination procedures, compliance with legal requirements is essential to maintain fairness, protect rights, and create a harmonious work environment.

By exploring various aspects of employment law, such as discrimination prevention, wage and hour regulations, and dispute resolution methods, employers and employees can gain the knowledge and tools necessary to ensure compliance and resolve conflicts effectively.

It is important for employers to establish clear policies, communicate expectations, and provide training to promote a culture of respect, diversity, and inclusion. Employees, on the other hand, should familiarize themselves with their rights, seek legal guidance when needed, and actively engage in maintaining a positive work environment.

Remember, employment laws are subject to change, so it is essential to stay updated through resources such as legal publications, professional associations, and legal counsel. By staying informed, employers and employees can adapt to legal changes, mitigate risks, and protect their interests.

Whether you are an employer or an employee, a solid understanding of employment law is essential. By adhering to legal requirements, fostering a respectful work environment, and seeking proper legal guidance, you can navigate the complexities of employment law with confidence and ensure a mutually beneficial and compliant employer-employee relationship.

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